Banner Pictures Explained – Bottom Row

Collection of Primary and Rechargeable Cylindrical Cells

From left to right:

Varta and English Eveready No.8 batteries (2xBF unit cell) zinc-carbon cells

Pair of BF zinc-carbon cells (Eveready 927)

Zinc-carbon “B” cell (taken from a dead Eveready 703) (A “D” cell is behind the “B” cell for height comparison.)

Protected “18500” lithium cell

NiCd “A” cell

Alkaline “AA” cell

In 1905 Ever Ready was selling flashlights and batteries using zinc-carbon cells; later shortening the name to Eveready in 1917.   The zinc-carbon system used ammonium chloride or zinc chloride solutions for the electrodes.  In the 1950’s Urry, working at Union Carbide’s Eveready Battery division invented the alkaline version of the zinc-carbon cell.   Alkaline cells have 3-5 times the capacity of an equivalent sized zinc-carbon cell and are therefore the primary cell of choice today.

Collection of Nickel Cadmium and Nickel Metal Hydride

Waldmar Jungner invented the nickel-cadmium battery in 1899 but due to the use of expensive materials they were not fully commercialized for many years.  Larger ventilated wet cell NiCd batteries are still used today in aircraft, rail, mass transit, emergency lighting, standby power, and uninterruptible power supplies and other applications; when larger capacities and high rate discharges are required.  Sealed nickel-cadmium batteries were developed in the 1940’s.  Rather than venting, the internal gases generated during charge were recombined. These advances led to the modern sealed nickel-cadmium battery; although environmental issues with cadmium have led to restrictions and some bans on the use of these batteries in consumer applications.

The nickel metal hydride battery was invented in 1967 but required over 20 years of development into the 1990’s before it began to take serious market share from nickel cadmium batteries due to a large improvement in energy density (and environmental issues).  Both the nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride cells use nickel oxyhydroxide (NiOOH) for their positive electrodes.  In a nickel-metal hydride cell the negative cadmium electrode is replaced with a hydrogen-absorbing alloy. 

Collection of Lithium-ion Cells and Batteries

Lithium-ion batteries are a family of rechargeable battery types in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging.  Compared to lithium metal anode batteries, lithium-ion batteries use an intercalated lithium compound as the anode, compared to metallic lithium.  Anode materials were originally carbons and graphites but now include high energy silicon and high power lithium titanate.  There are many different cathode intercalation active materials including lithium cobalt oxide, lithium manganese spinel, lithium nickel-manganese-cobalt oxide, lithium nickel-cobalt-aluminum oxide and lithium iron phosphate.

Following many years of developments in intercalation materials by scientists including Whittingham, Besenhard, Goodenough, Yazami, and Yoshino; lithium-ion batteries were first commercialized by Sony in 1991 and Asahi-Toshiba in 1992.  Moli Energy, a Canadian company, was the first to commercialize lithium-ion batteries in North America in 1994.

Iontensity Lithium-ion Cells

Iontensity develops and assembles lithium-ion pouch cells in various form factors depending on customer requirements.  Iontensity is a low volume assembler specializing in customized battery designs and R&D of new chemistries and materials.  Iontensity has extensive experience with high energy Si anode cells and high power lithium titanate anode cells.



  1. It is not my first time to pay a visit this web page, i am browsing this web page dailly and get good data from here all the time. Gilligan Gardy Bohannon

  2. For the reason that the admin of this web page is working, no doubt very soon it will be renowned, due to its quality contents. Carol-Jean Trev Appledorf

  3. When I initially left a comment I seem to have clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now each time a comment is added I get 4 emails with the exact same comment. There has to be a way you can remove me from that service? Many thanks. Dulcinea Jacques Salbu

  4. I really love your website.. Pleasant colors & theme.
    Did you build this amazing site yourself? Please reply back as I’m trying
    to create my very own site and would like to find out
    where you got this from or just what the theme
    is called. Thanks!

    My page Instagram likes

  5. Just desire to say your article is as astonishing.
    The clearness in your post is simply cool and i can assume you are an expert on this subject.
    Well with your permission allow me to grab your RSS feed to keep up to date with forthcoming post.
    Thanks a million and please keep up the enjoyable

    Also visit my webpage :: weed vape

  6. Hey just wanted to give you a quick heads up and let you know a
    few of the pictures aren’t loading properly.

    I’m not sure why but I think its a linking issue.
    I’ve tried it in two different browsers and both show the same results.

    Here is my blog – THC Gummies

  7. I believe that is among the such a lot important info for me.

    And i am glad studying your article. But want to statement on few normal things,
    The site taste is wonderful, the articles is really great : D.
    Just right job, cheers

    Here is my page … buy tiktok followers

  8. Great post. I was checking constantly this blog and I am impressed!
    Extremely useful info specially the last part 🙂 I care for such info much.
    I was seeking this particular information for a very long time.
    Thank you and good luck.

    Here is my homepage … buy weed online

  9. Thanks for your marvelous posting! I actually enjoyed reading it,
    you will be a great author.I will make sure to bookmark your blog and definitely will come back from now on. I
    want to encourage you to ultimately continue your
    great work, have a nice evening!

    Also visit my website: buy weed

  10. This is the right blog for anybody who hopes
    to find out about this topic. You understand a whole lot its almost hard to argue
    with you (not that I personally will need to…HaHa).

    You definitely put a new spin on a subject that has
    been written about for a long time. Wonderful stuff, just great!

    Feel free to surf to my site … difference between choice botanicals bali kratom and maeng da kratom

  11. hello!,I really like your writing very much! percentage we be in contact extra
    about your article on AOL? I require a specialist in this
    area to solve my problem. May be that’s you! Looking forward to see you.

    Here is my website :: delta 8 thc carts; https://area52.Com,

Comments are closed.